Dhammasangani (trans. Khine)
enumerations of the Ultimate Realities
I) Division on mind and mental concomitants
(cittupada kanda)--Meritorious Triad
Meritorious Thought pertaining to sensuous sphere--
(1) first category of meritorious thought pertaining
to the sensuous sphere
i) Definition of the Dhamma Factors
a. exposition in brief
"What are the meritorious dhammas?
"When at a certain time a meritorious though pertaining to
the sensuous sphere arises, accompanied by pleasure and associated
with knowlege, having as its object any sense object, such as a visible
object, a sound, a taste, a tangible object, a mind object, --
then at that time contact arises, perception arises, volition arises,
thought arises, initial application of mind arrises, sustained application
of mind arises, delightful satisfaction of mind arises, happiness
arises, one-pointedness of mind arises, the faculty of conviction
arises, the faculty of endevour arises, the faculty of mindfulness
arises, the faculty of concentration arises, the faculty of wisdom
arises, the faculty of mind arises, the faculty of mental pleasantness
arises, the faculty of vitality arises, right view arises, right thinking
arises, right effort arises, right mindfulness arises, right concentration
arises, power of conviction arises, power of endevour arises, power
of mindfulness arises, power of concentration arises, power of wisdom
arises, power of being ashamed (to do evil) arises, power of fear
(to do evil) arises, non-greed arises, non-hatred arises, non-bewilderment
arises, non-covetousness arises, not having ill-will arises, right
view arises, serenity of mental concomitants arises, serenity of mind
arises, quickness of mental concomitants arises, serenity of mind
arises, malleability of mental concomitants arises, malleability of
mind arises, preparedness (for good action) of mental concomitants
arises, preparedness (for good action) of mind arises, soundness of
mental concomitants arises, soundness of mind arises, rectitude of
mental concomitants arises, rectitude of mind arises, mindfulness
arises, clear comprehension arises, tranquility of mind arises, insight
arises, endevour arises, non-distraction (of concentration) arises.
At that time, there are also other incorporeal dhamma which are causally
produced. These are the meritorious dhamma." (Dhammasangani,
trans. Khine, 33-5)
- Followed by detailed exposition where terms are defined, but not described.
e.g. 'what is perception at that time? That which at that time is perception
born out of full contact with mind-consciousness-element appropriate
to that perception, the fact of percieving, the state of perception--this
at that time is perception." (35)
- wisdom is cool: "...thorogh understanding, scrutiny, comprehensive
scrutiny, investigative knowlege of the dhamma (four ariya truths);
right, close, and direct observation, erudition, proficiency, refinement
in knowlege, discriminative knowlege, reflection (on impermanence, etc),
comparative examination, breadth of knowlege, wisdom tht destroys defilements,
penetrative wisdom, insight, clear comprehension, wisdom like a guiding
goad, wisdom as the faculty of wisdom, power of wisdom, wisdom like
a sword (destroying defilements), a tower, light, radience, torch, a
jewel, non-bewilderment, investigative knowlege of the dhamma, right
view-- this at that time is the faculty of wisdom." (38)
ii) Classified Enumeration of the Items of the First Category... Sphere
- Four Aggregates: aggregate of sensation, perception, volitional
- aggregate of volition contains "the faculties," contact,
volition; initial, sustained, one-pointed application of mind; eightfold
path, the powers, etc.
- Three Mental concomitants: =four aggregates minus consciousness
- Three nutriments: contact, volition, consciousness [aharas]
- Eight Faculties: endevour, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom,
mind, mental pleasantness, vitality.
- Jhana (mental absorbtion) with Five factors: initial application
of mind, sustained application of mind, delightful satisfaction, happiness,
and one pointedness of mind.
- the path with five constituents: (five-fold path?) right view, right
thinking, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. (vs.
view intention(thinking?) speech action livelihood effort mindfulness
- the method here is a collective term is given, exploded, then those
terms are defined, exploded. In the end we're left with a hierarchical
ordering of terms sitting on the Suttanta as foundation.
- Seven Powers: Power of Conviction, endevour, mindfulness, concentration,
wisdom, being ashamed (to do evil) [Shame perhaps?], fear (to do evil).
- Three Root Causes: non-greed, non-hatred, non-bewilderment
iii) Section on Sunnata, Voidness of Atta in the Dhamma
- the dhamma that arise at the time of meritorious thought are only
mental phenomena consisting of mind and mental commitants and nothing
more. Thereis no "Self" that can be identified with
these phenomena. There is no being apart from these dhamma.
[you know its bad when the TRANSLATOR starts skimming]
(2) Meritorious Thought Pertaining to the Sensuous Sphere
- what follows is Second category, "Meritorious Dhamma" is
pretty much a repetition of the first section.
(3rd category of) Meritorious Thought Pertaining to the
- same as first para. except with "but not associated with knowlege"
in place of Associated with knowlege
- accordingly the following terms are left out: faculty of wisdom, right
view, power of wisdom, non-bewilderment, right view, clear comprehension,
insight (trans has two "right views" continuously, lord knows
4th, 5th... more of the same
- (4) adds "accompanied by pleasure... but not associated
with knowlege and caused by internal or external prompting, and
having as its object..."
- (5) substitutes "accompanied by equanimity and
associated with knowlege, having as its object..."
- we may be down to four factors of Jhana here... it says we repeat
as before, but in 5, ii, a, ...brief, we have 4 where before there were
- (6) "accompanied by equanimity and associated with knowlege
and caused by internal or external prompting, having as its object..." (all
of the above)
- (7, 8) "accompanied by equanimity, and not assoc. with
knowlege, having any sense object , such as a visible object..."
can't find the difference...
Meritorious Thought pertaining to the
Fine Material Sphere
- Five varieties of Jhana:
- Kasina Jhana
- Pathavi Kasina--Earth Object
- Abhibhayatana Jhana
- Vimokkha Jhana
- Brahmavihara Jhana
- Asubha Jhana
- First Jhana:
"When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the fine material sphere, he, being detatched from
sensual pleasures and demeritorious factors achieves and remains
in the first jhana which has an earth device as the object of meditation
and which arises together with initial application of the mind (vitakka)
sustained application of the mind (vicara), delightful satisfaction
(piti) and bliss (sukha) born out of detatchment from hindrances.
At that time contact arises... (as in paragraph 1-2) these are the meritorious
" When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the Fine Material Sphere by getting rid of initial application
of the mind (vitakka) and sustained application of the mind (vicara)
he achieves and remains in the second Jhana which has an earth-device
as the object of meditation, which has internal serenity and enhancement
of one-pointedness of mind, devoid of initial application of the mind
and sustained application of the mind, but with delightful satisfaction
and bliss born out of concentration - at that time contact arises, sensation
arises, perception arises, volition arises, thought arises, delightful
satisfaction arises, bliss, one pointedness, faculties... , right view...(repeat
as in para 1, 2-6, 9-20, 22-75) (pg. 86-7, para161)
- there are differences... You actually have to read these lists for
what is NOT included. The fuckers.
- Mental Absorbtion is down to three factors in the next paragraph...
- Second Jhana:
yada yada which has internal serenity and enhancement of one-pointedness
of mind, etc...
- Third category of Jhana:
(iii) "When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the Fine Material Sphere by detatching himself from
delightful satisfaction, he dwells with mindfulness and clear comprehension
in equanimity and experiences mental and physical well-being.
With an earth device etc.. he attains and dwells in the third Jhana
which causes the person who attains it to be praised by the Ariyas as
one who has equanimity and mindfulness, one who abides in bliss."
- aggregates of volitional activity in the third Jhana drop the mental
concomitants of mind, initial application, sustained application, delightful
- Fourth Category of Jhana
"When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the Fine Material Sphere by dispelling pain and pleasure
and by the prior disappearance of pleasantness and distress, he,
with an earth device as the object of meditation achieves and remains
in the fourth Jhana without pain and pleasure, a state of equanimity
and absolute purity of mindfulness." (91)
Classification of Jhana into Five Categories
- don't see the point to this division
Enumeration of Jhana into modes of practice
- difficult practice/slow acquisition
facile practice/slow acquisition
difficut practice/swift acquisition
facile practice/swift acquisition
En. of Kinds of Jhana According to Four Objects of Concentration
- "...he achieves and remains in jhana with insufficient practice
(for higher attainment) and with an earth-device of limited sizeas
required as the obnect of meditation. (103)
- "...he achieves and remains in jhana with insufficient
practice (for higher attainment) and with an earth-device capable
of extention as required as the obnect of meditation. (103)
- sufficient practice... etc for the higher states. [who
and why did they feel this was necessary???]
- then they combine the difficult/facile-slow/swift as above with the
insufficient/sufficient-limited/extensible matrix... the freaks.
Abhibhayatana Jhana Attained by Mastery over Objects of Concentration
of Limited Size
- [I can only imagine they were afraid this information would fall into
the wrong hands and only the most diabolical sort would go through what
I am doing]
- "When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the Fine Material Sphere, not by concentrating on any
part of his body, but by concentrating on an external object of
meditation of limited size with the thought: "I shall know and
see those objects with mastery over them", and getting detached
from sensual pleasures... etc." (113)
- runs through first-fourth jhanas, then again first-fifth jhanas.
Apparently there is some significance to that distinction in terms of
progress as well... tho' I can't see it.
- agian with the above not by...his body...but by external object and
Eightfold Combination of Mode of Practice with Unblemished or Blemished
Object of Concentration of Limited Size
- I think we all see where this is going...
- "When at a certain time... of limited size, unblemished or blemished,
with the thought: "I shall know..."etc
- [Damn. Can't believe how much of this I picked up on in Bodhgaya.
What they are referring to is the idea that in Samatha meditation, external
object meditation, you develop the ability to "expand" the
object along its axes to infinity, then to see it as "unblemished"
i.e. in its absolute purity, or "blemished" as it truly exists
in front of you. The latter is more difficult when you are causing
it to expand and contract... seeing every scuff and scratch.]
- "[Editorial note: In continuation of the above two paragraphs,
the four Modes of Practice (facile/difficult,etc) and the two kinds
of objects (extensible/limited) of Concentration with the addition of
the words "blemished" or "unblemished" are to be
combined to obtain another method of forming an Eightfold Combination
of Modes of Practice and Objects of Concentration]" (123-slight
paraphrase. Its late 01:21, I'm tired)
Abhibhayatana Jhana attained by Mastery over Colour (in sixteenfold
combination of mode of practice and Object of concentration)
- What are (de)meritorious dhamma [(!) why suddenly demeritorious?
I'm pretty sure its a typo... the next paragraph, with other colors
in the exact same format is back to meritorious, Or, based on the following
section, the second could be the typo... fuck... I'll have to consult
Ms. Davids. Whew saved. It ends with "these are meritorious
dhamma... unless THAT's the typo... So fucking obsessed with difference
right now... Saussure and derrida would be proud...] Paragraphs 246,
- "When at a certain time... but by concentrating on the color
of any part of his body, but by concentrating on external objects of
meditation which are dark-blue, have a dark-blue colour, a dark-blue
hue, a dark blue lustre, with the thought: 'I shall know and see those
- same for yellow, red, white... (no green? interesting; was it added
to prayer flags to round out to ten?)
Three Kinds of Release [vimokkha]
- "...by concentrating on the colour of a part of his body and
on the colour of an external object of meditation, and getting detatched
from sensual pleasures..." (137)
- para 250: "...rebirth in F.M.S. by contemplating the brightness
and clarity (subha) of the object of meditation, and getting detatched..."
Four Jhanas Attained by Abiding in Noble thoughts of Goodwill, etc.
(through 16-fold combo)
- "...remains in first jhana full of thoughts of goodwill
- "...thoughts of compassion [karuna]..."
- "...thoughts of sympathetic joy
Jhana of Equanimity
- "...F.M.S. by eliminating bliss... he achieves and remains in
the fourth Jhana with thoughts of equanimity..." (141)
Jhana on Foul Things
- "...he achieves and remains in the First jhana with the notion
of foulness of a bloated corpse..."
- "...of a corpse discoloured with decay..."
- "...of a festering corpse..."
- "...of a corpse cut in two in the middle..."
- "...a corpse mangled by animals in various ways..."
- "...a corpse with limbs scattered in various ways..."
- "...a bloody corpse..."
- "...a worm-infested corpse..."
- "...a skeleton-- then at that time contact arises... non-distraction
arises... These are the meritorious dhamma." (141-2) (para 264)
Meritorious Thoughts Pertaining to the
Four Jhanas connected to non-mat. sphere (w/16-fold combinations)
- "When at a certain time one practices the way for the attainment
of rebirth in the Non-Material Sphere, by completely transcending
all forms of consciousness that turn on corporeality [rupasanna],
by cessation of all forms of consciousness arising out of contact between
the senses and their objects [patighasanna], by not paying attention
to other forms of consciousness, many and varied, [nanattasanna],
he achieves and remains in the fourth jhana characterized by
elimination of bliss [sukha]... with equanimity and together with the
concept 'space is infinite' -- then at that time... meritorious
dhamma." (142-3) (para 265)
- enters into Fourth Jhana with "space is infinite"... with
"consciousness is infinite"... with "concept of nothingness"
(i.e. "nothing is there")... with "neither consciousness
nor non-consciousness" [nevasannanasanna]...
Kinds of meritorious thoughts
which lead to the Three Grades of Existence
in the respective spheres
m.t. in the sensuous sphere
- when at a certain time a m.t. rel. to sensuous sphere, accompanied
by pleasure, associated with knowlege, a thought which is...:
- inferior/medium/superior in quality of effort
- dominated by desire/endevour/iteself/investigative knowlege
- then combine the terms, e.g. ...inferior...-...desire..., medium-endevour...
- next add the term: associated with knowlege, and caused by 'sankhara'
[internal or external prompting]
- then not associated with knowlege, then "but accompanied
- ...together with equinimity, associated with knowlege...
- then all of the above...
- then with an earth-device as object of meditation
- first-fourth Jhanas...
m.t. in the non-sensuous sphere...
- same as the two preceding paras (ch. 4+first half of 5), taken together...
Supramundane Meritorious Thoughts
Exposition purely of practice
- "When at a certain time one practices supramundane mental concentration
for the purpose of eradication of wrong views and for the attainment
of the first level of enlightenment [sotapatti magga] which leads
to liberation from the ills of sufferings of existence and which leads
to destruction of death and rebirth, and by getting detatched from sensual
pleasures... etc, as before."
Voidness of Self: First magga
- first Jana through fifth here called Sunnata Jhana (I'm dropping
~ over n's everywhere tildeize both) as a supramundane Jhana.
All are devoid of atta [Self] (interesting void and devoid mean the
Voidness of Hankering
- first off, there MUST be a better translation then hankering... which
is used a LOT for this
- Appanihita Jhana "devoid of hankering"
Twenty Great Methods
"when at a certain time one practices Supramundane...
- supramundane mental concentration
- ...steadfast mindfulness
- ...Right effort
- ...Bases of Psychic Power [sammappadhana]
- ...Faculties [indriyas]
- ...Powers [Balas]
- ...Factors of Enlightenment [Bojjhangas
- ...Ariya Truths [sacca]
- ...Concentration [Samatha]
- supramundane voidness (of self) [sunnata dhamma]
- ... Mental Aggregates [Khandas] (4)
- ...Sense Spheres [Ayatanas] (2)
- ...Elements [Dhatus] (2)
- ...Nutriments [Aharas]
- ...Contact [phassa]
- ...Sensation [Vedana]
- ...Perception [Sanna]
- ...Volition [cetana]
- Supramundane Thought [Citta]
...for the purpose of eradication of wrong views and for the attainment
of the first level of enlightenment which leads to liberation from dukkha
and to the destruction of death and rebirth and getting detatched from
sensual pleasures... etc...
... he achieves and remains by difficult practice and slow acquisition
of jhana in the first jhana, dominated by desire/endevour/thougt/investigative
knowlege... ...then at that time contact arises... non-distraction arises...
these are the meritorious dhamma..."
- ...as before... with:
- "liberation from the ills and sufferings of existence [dukkha]
and to destruction of death and rebirth for the purpose of attenuation
of attachment to the Sensual Sphere and of ill will and for the
attainment of the Second level of enlightenment (Sakadagami Magga) and
getting detatched from sensual pleasure..."
- ...as before... with:
- "...for the purpose of eradication of attachment to existence
and of ill will... third level [anagami magga]..."
- "...for the purpose of complete eradication of attachment
to existence in the Fine Material Sphere, of attachment to existence
in the Non-material sphere, of conceit, of distraction and ignorance
and for the attainment of the fourth level of enlightenment (arahatta
magga) and getting detatched from sensual pleasures..."
II part 3
Twelve categories of Demeritorious thought
Eight categories of thought Caused by Greed
- "When at a certain time a demeritorious thought arises, accompanied
by pleasure and associated with wrong view, having as its object any
sense object, such as visible obj, sound, odour, taste, tangible obj,
mind object, then at that time contact arises..." as before up
to... "power of not being ashamed to do evil arises, having no
fear (to do evil) arises, greed arises, bewilderment arises, consciousness
arises, wrong view arises, not being ashamed arises [again?], not being
afraid arises, tranquility of mind arises, endevour arises, non-distraction
arises." ... thus we drop about a third of the terms... interesting(194-5)
- the expanded definitions of the terms are predicably modified, e.g.
"initial app. of mind" includes wrong thinking, "delightful
satisfaction" includes self satisfaction. The descriptive
lists are probably curtailed as well. but again, not bored enough
- ...oh yah and "right" in the first list is changed to wrong..."
- "What at that time is wrong view?
"That which at that time is wrong view , that which is included
in the (62 kinds of wrong view), the thicket of wrong view (ditthigahana),
the wilderness of wrong view[ditthikantara], the thorny spike of wrong
view [ditthivisukayika], the inconsistency of wrong view [ditthivipphandita]
the fetter of wrong view [ditthisamyojana], obsession [gaha], establishment
in wrong view [patitthaha], inclination toward wrong view [abhinivesa],
misconception [paramasa], detestable path [micchatta], wrong course
[micchapatha], falsness [micchatta], base of wrong view [titthayatana],
tenacity in wrong view [vipariyasaggaha], --this at that time is wrong
view." (198-9, para 381)
- para 390, what at that time is bewilderment (moha) contains lots of
great terms, too... but I can't be bothered right now...
- much of the same gymnastics for "wrong view" as for "right
- alternation of terms include: accompanied by pleasure/neutrality of
feeling/neither mental ease nor unease/neither pleasnantness nor non-pleasantness...
- [way skimming here...]
Categories of Demeritorious thought Caused by Bewilderment
- "When at a certain time a demeritorious thought arises, acompanied
by equanimity and associated with uncertainty [vicikiccha], having as
its object any sense object,... etc to having no fear, endevour arises."
(pg. 218, para. 422) the lists are getting shorter...
Part 1 Part
2 Part 3
Categories of thought which are
neither meritorious nor demeritorious
"When as a result of meritorious deeds or of the accumulation of
such deeds, done in connection with the sensuous sphere, eye-consciousness
arises, accompanied by equinimity, having a visible object as
its object -- then at that time contact arises, sensation, perception,
volition, thought, equanimity, one-pointedness, mind, faculty of mind,
faculty of equanimity, faculty of vitality arises... (all end in "arises")...
at that time there are other incorporeal dhamma which are causally produced.
These are the dhamma which are neither meritorious nor demeritorious.
- formula applies for eye through touch, excluding mind. Five
- body consciousness [Kaya-vinnana] exludes mind-consciousness.
- [god this is so fucking full of errors! I dont' think the "Department
of the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana Editorial committee did
their job, or even read the thing!]
- "resultant mind-element" [vipaka manodhatu, aka sampaticchana]
= the moment of consciousness which accepts or receives an object
- mind consciousness can be accompanied by pleasure and still fit this
Eight types of Mind-Consciousness Elemnt resulting from meritorious
thought which are neither/nor
- accompanied by pleasure and associated with knowlege
- accompanied by pleasure and associated with knowlege and caused by
- accompanied by pleasure and not associated with knowlege
- accompanied by pleasure and not associated with knowlege but caused
by internal/external prompting
- accompanied by equanimity and associated with knowlege
- accompanied by equinimity and associated with knowlege and caused
by internal/external prompting
- accompanied by equanimity and not associated with knowlege
- accompanied by equinimity and not associated with knowlege and caused
by internal/external prompting
- I can't discern the conconclusion. a paragraph ends in "these
are the meritorious dhamma," then the following formula asa only
"Whe because of just those same meritorious deeds or the accumulation
of such deeds done in connection with the F.M.Sphere, by dispelling
pleasure..." and therefore its neither meritorious nor demeritorious.
Resultant thoughts that arise in the Non-material sphere
- Again with the same caveat as just mentioned above. I can only
assume that it turns on the "resultant thoughts" in other
words, the results of meritorious thought or activity are neither
meritorious nor demeritorious . Which would make sense, since
the simply arise...
- ...but then why couldn't they just SAY that... oh well...
- Next we run through arupa jhanas as we have before the rupa jhanas...
- Animitta Jhana - devoid of signs or permanence...
- these are the sotipatti magga, etc.
- "when because of practicing and cultivating just this supramundane
meritorious mental concentration and getting detatched... he achieves
Sunnata, the first jhana..." these are neither/nor (255)
- hankering = striving, doesn't it?
- again with the above listed 20 methods, with the caveat that the attainment
- then again with devoid of hankering, but dominated by desire...
- okay, so the're alternating devoid of hankering/devoid of signs of
- now they're doing the difficult/slow facile/swift thing...
- Now we've left Animitta Jhana for Sunnyata Jhana, where the first
jhana is known as Appanihita Jhana.
- and the same formula is repeated. again.
- 20 great methods
Resultant Thoughts of the three Higher Maggas
Three higher Phalas
- Enter the "Faculty of perfect knowlege" (annindriya):
- Sakadagami Magga: realization of four noble truths first
realized in Sotapatti Magga
- Anagami Magga: etc
- Arahatta Magga: etc I think the translator's losing it.
Now he's doing in the footnotes what the text is doing up front.
- The translator is falling apart now... or getting drunk. Its
hard to say:
"Section on Classified Enumeration of the
Items of Mind-Element Resulting from
- okay we've been (apparently, unbeknowenst to me) walking through results
of demeritorious thought that are neither meritorious nor demeritorious.
- ooh... plural of dhamma is dhammaa (a with a bar over it, long a)
Neither Meritorious nor Demeritorious Non-Causitive Action thoughts
Devoid of Root Causes
Non-Causitive Action Mind-Element
(this is starting to resemble a bad joke... or monty python sketch)
- Non-Causitive Action Mind-Consciousness element (hasituppada)
- [okay, my resolve has just now been shaken to its root. Its
no longer about Truth, its no longer about grad school, its no longer
about Buddhism's roots, its no longer about philosophy... Now its purely
and simply because I vowed to read this]
- nutriments [aharas, or aahaaras]
- non-causative action mind consciousness element... accompanied by
- absence of greed [alobha]
- absense of hate [adosa]
- 579: When at a certain time one practices Arupa Jhana which is neither
meritorious nor demeritorious, nor is the resultant of either, and which
is non-causative action, just experiencing the well-being in the present
existence, and when by completely transcending all forms of consciousness
that turn on corporeality (rupasanna) by cessation of all forms of consciousness
arising out of contact between the sensense and their objects (patighasanna),
by not paying attention to other forms of consciousness many and varied
[nanattasanna], he achieves and remains in..."
- rupa jhana just before follows the same formula as we've seen early,
splitting off from this one at "completely transcending" and
going instead into "getting rid of initial application of mind."
- absense of bewilderment [amoha]
end of devision on mind and mental concomitants