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Abhidhammatha Sangaha
by Acariya Anuruddha
Bhikkhu Bodhi, General Editor

Chapter 1
Compendium of Consciousness
[cittasangagavibhaga]

1) words of praise.

2) Fourfold ultimate reality (catudhaa paramattha)

The things contained in the Abhidhamma, spoken of therein, are altogether fourfold from the standpoint of ultimate reality: consciousness, mental factors, matter, and Nibbana.

  • conventional [sammuti] vs. ultimate [paramattha]
  • sammuti differs from mere conventional thought [pannatti] and conv. modes of expression [vohara]
  • Dhammas: the final, irreducible components of existence; of their own intrinsic nature [sabhava]
  • "The ultimate realities are characterized not only from the ontological angle as the ultimate existents, but also from the epistemological as the ultimate objects of right knowlege." (26)
  • Suttas: five aggregates: matter, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness.
  • Abh.: four categories: consciousness (citta), mental factors, matter, Nibbana
  • The first three comprise all conditoned reality.
  • "Mental factors" of the Abh = aggregates of feeling, perception, and mental formations
  • 52 mental factors total. "mental formations" divided into fifty, with feeling and perception rounding it out.
  • 28 types of material phenomena.
3) Four Classes of ConsciousnessOf theme, consciousness, firstly, is fourfold:
  1. sense-sphere consciousness [kamavacaracitta]
  2. fine-material-sphere consciousness [rupavacaracitta]
  3. immaterial-sphere consciousness [arupavacaracitta]
  4. supramundane consciousness [lokuttaracitta]
  • Citta is derived from "to cognize, to know"
  • "citta is fundimentally an activity or process of cognizing or knowing an object.  It is not an agent or instrument possessing actual being in itself apart from the activity of cognizing." (27)
  • Four delimiting devices: Characteristic [lakkhana], function [rasa] (task performance [kicca], or goal [sampatti]), its manifestation [paccupatthana], and its proximate cause [padatthana]
  • In the case of Citta (following the above): characteristic is knowing an object; its function is to be a forerunner;  its manifestation (the way it appears in the meditator's experience) is as a continuity of processes (sandhana).  Its proximate cause is namarupa.
  • There are 89 or 121 cittas.  [table 1.1 pg 28]
  • Several overlapping principles of classification:  The plane of consciousness [bhumi], four planes; three are mundane (sense sphere, the fine-material, etc as above.
    • kammically active cittas generate rebirth only in the operative plane.
    • kamabhumi is sensuous plane; eleven realms.  four hells, the human, six sensuous heavens.
    • rupabhumi - fine material plane, rupajjahaanas; meditation proceeds by consciousness upon a material obj; i.e. earth Kasina
    • Arupabhumi, arupajhana; object of concentration = non-material obj; i.e. infinity of space.
    • loka = world, uttara = beyond, transcendent to.  "world" is threefold. living beings [sattaloka] physical universe [okaasaloka] world of formations [sanhaaraloka]--that is, the totality of conditioned phenomena, physical, and mental.  Guess which we're talking about?
  • An alternate method is classification by jati [kind, nature].
    • by nature, citta divides into four classes: unwholesome [akusalacitta], wholesome [kusalacitta], resultant [vipaka], and functional [kiriya or kriya].
    • resultants are those states (cittas) of consc. that arise through the ripening of kamma; both kamma and its results are purely mental
    • Functional; neither kamma nor kamma resultant.  "It involves activity, yet this activity is not kammically determinate and thus is not capable of producing kammic results." (32)  [does this in any way connect to sanskrit "kriya yoga"?]

Unwholesome Consciousness
(akusalacittani)

4) Consciousness rooted in Greed [lobhamulacittani]
Amongst them, what pertains to the sense sphere?

  1. one consciousness, accompanied by joy, associated with wrong view, unprompted
  2. one consciousness, accompanied by joy, associated with wrong view, prompted
  3. one consciousness, accompanied by joy, dissociated with wrong view, unprompted
  4. one consciousness, accompanied by joy, dissociated with wrong view, prompted
  5. one consciousness, accompanied by equinimity, associated with wrong view, unprompted
  6. one consciousness, accompanied by equinimity, associated with wrong view, prompted
  7. one consciousness, accompanied by equinimity, dissociated with wrong view, unprompted
  8. one consciousness, accompanied by equinimity, dissociated with wrong view, prompted
  • three roots lobha, dosa, moha [greed, hatred, delusion]
  • greed and hatred are mutually exclusive according to Abhidhamma; cannot coxist in same citta.
  • lobha includes all varieties of greed ranging from intense passion or cupidity to subtle liking and attatchment.
  • accompanied by joy [somanassasahagata]:  su = pleasant + manas = mind; literally, a pleasant mental state (somanassa)
  • accompanied by equinimity [upekkhasahagata]: while often equinimity [upekkha] usually relates to a mental state where oen cannot be swayed by biases and preferences, here it means simply 'neutral feeling'.
  • associated with wrong view [ditthigatasampayutta]: ditthi means view, and unless prefaced by samma, it generally refers to 'wrong view' [micchaa ditthi]
  • Wrong view accompanies the consciousness rooted in greed as a conviction, belief, opinion, or rationalization.
  • dissociated from wrong view [ditthigatavipayuttha] means that greed operates in them without any accompanying justification provided by a view.
  • Unprompted [Asankharika]:  Sankhara = prompting, instigation, inducement (payoga), or the application of an expedient (upaaya). 
  • prompted [sasankharika]

5) Consciousness rooted in Hatred [dosamuulacittani]

  1.  One consciousness, accompanied by displeasure, associated with aversion, unprompted.
  2.  One consciousness, accompanied by displeasure, associated with aversion, prompted.
    these two types of consciousness are associated with aversion.
  • "In contrast to consciousness rooted in greed, which can arise with alternative types of feeling--either joy or equanimity--consciousness rooted in hatred arises with only one kind of feeling, that of displeasure.
  • domanassa = du-bad + manas-mind; signifies unpleasant mental feeling.
  • dosa is expounded under the synonymous term aversion (patigha)
  • patigha literally means "striking against" which indicates a mental attitude of resistance, rejection, or destruction.

6) Consciousness Rooted in Delusion [mohamulacittani]

  1. One consciousness, accompanied by equinimity, associated with doubt.
  2. One consciousness, accompanied by equanimity, associated with restlessness.
    These two types of consciousness involve sheer delusion.
    Thus end, in all, the twelve types of unwholesome consciousness.

7) Summary of Unwholesome Consciousness

Eight are rooted in greed, two in hatred, and two in delusion.  THus there are twelve types of unwholesome consciousness.

Rootless Consciousness
(ahetukacittaani)

8) Unwholesome-Resultant Consciousness

  1. Eye-consciousness accompanied by equanimity, as are:
  2. ear-consciousness
  3. nose-consciousness
  4. toungue-consciousness
  5. body-consciousness accompanied by pain
  6. Recieving consciousness accompanied by equanimity;
  7. Investigating consciousness accompanied by equanimity.
    These seven are the unwholesome resultant types of consciousness

9) Wholesome-Resultant Rootless Consciousness

  1. Eye-consciousness accompanied by equanimity; as are
  2. ear-consciousness
  3. nose-consciousness
  4. tounge-consciousness
  5. body-consciousness accompanied by pleasure;
  6. receiving consciousness accompanied by equanimity
  7. investigating consciousness accompanied by joy
  8. investigating consciousness accompanied by equanimity.
    These eight are the wholesome-resultant types of rootless consciousness.

10) Rootless Functional Consciousness

  1. Five sense-door adverting consciousness accompanied by equanimity; as is
  2. Mind-door adverting consciousness
  3. Smile-producing consciousness accompanied by joy.   These three are the rootless functional types of consciousness.  Thus end, in all 18 types of rootless consciousness.

11) Summary of Rootless Consciousness

Seven are unwholesome-resultants.  Wholesome resultants are eightfold.  Three are functionals.  Thus the rootless are eighteen

12) Beautiful Consciousness (sobhanacittani)

Excluding those that are evil and the rootless, the rest are called "beautiful" They number either fifty-nine or ninety-one.

Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness

13) Sense-sphere Wholesome Consciousness... (1-8)
14) Sense-sphere Resultant Consciousness... (9-16)
15) Sense-sphere Functional Consciousness... (17-24)

  1. One consciousness, accompanied by joy, associated with knowlege, unprompted.
  2. One consciousness, accompanied by joy, associated with knowlege, prompted.
  3. One consciousness, accompanied by joy, dissociated from knowlege, unprompted.
  4. One consciousness, accompanied by joy, dissociated from knowlege, prompted.
  5. One consciousness, accompanied by equanimity, associated with knowlege, unprompted.
  6. One consciousness, accompanied by equanimity, associated with knowlege, prompted.
  7. One consciousness, accompanied by equanimity, dissociated from knowlege, unprompted.
  8. One consciousness, accompanied by equanimity, dissociated from knowlege, prompted.
    These are the eight types of sense-sphere wholesome consciousness with roots.
    14) ...These are the eight type of sense-sphere resultant consciousness with roots.
    15) ...These are the eight type of sense-sphere functional consciousness with roots.

Thus end the 24 types of sense-sphere consciousness with roots--wholesome, resultant, and functional.

17) Summary of Sense-Sphere Consciousness

In the sense-sphere twenty-three are resultant, twenty are wholesome and unwholesome, and eleven are functional.  Thus there are altogether 54.

Fine-Material-Sphere Consciousness
[rupavacaracittani]

18) Fine-material-Sphere Wholesome Consciousness
19) Fine-material-Sphere Resultant Consciousness
20 ) Fine-material-Sphere Functional Consciousness

  1. First Jhana wholesome (...resultant, ...functional) consciousness together with initial application, sustained application, zest, happiness, and one-pointedness.
  2. Second Jhana wholesome (...resultant, ...functional) consciousness together with sustained application, zest, happiness, and one-pointedness
  3. Third Jhana wholesome (...resultant, ....functional) consciousness together with zest, happiness, and one-pointedness
  4. Fourth Jhana wholesome (...resultant, ...functional) consciousness together with happiness and one-pointedness
  5. Fifth Jhana wholesome (...resultant, ...functional) consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness.
    These are the five types of fine-material-sphere wholesome (...resultant, ...functional) consciousness.

21) Summary of Fine-Material-Sphere Consciousness

Fine material sphere consciousness is fivefold when divided by way of the Jhanas.  It becomes of fifteen types when further divided by way fo the wholesome, resultant, and functional.

Immaterial-Sphere Consciousness
[arupavacaracittani]

22) Immaterial sphere wholesome Consciousness
23) Immaterial sphere resultant Consciousness
24) Immaterial sphere functional Consciousness

  1. Wholesome (resultant, functional) consciousness pertaining to the base of infinite space
  2. ...the base of infinite consciousness
  3. ...the base of nothingness
  4. ...the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
    These are the four types of immaterial-sphere wholesome (resultant, functional) consciousness.

25) Summary of Immaterial-Sphere Consciousness

Immaterial-sphere consciousness is fourfold when classified by way of object.  When again divided by way of the wholesome, resultant, and functional it stands at twelve types.

Supramundane Consciousness
[lokuttara-kusalacittani]

26) Supramundane Wholesome Consciousness
27) Supramundane Resultant Consciousness

  1. Path (Fruition) consciousness of stream-entry (Sotapatti-maggacittam) (phalacittam)
  2. Path consciousness of once-returning (Sakadagami-maggacittam)
  3. Path consciousness of non-returning (Anagami-maggacittam)
  4. Path consciousness of Arahantship (Arahatta-maggacittan ca ti)
    These are the four types of supramundane wholesome (resultant) consciousness.
    27) Thus end, in all, the eight types of supramundane wholesome and resultant consciousness.

28) Summary of Supramundane Consciousness

The wholesome consciousness is fourfold, divided by way of the four paths.  So too are the resultants, being their fruits.  Thus the supramundane should be understood as eightfold.

121 Types of Consciousness
[ekavisasatani cittani]

30) In Brief

These different classes of consciousness, which thus number 89, the wise divide into 121.

31) In Detail

How does consciousness which is analyzed into 89 types become of 121 types?

  1. The first jhana path consciousness of stream-entry together with initial application, sustained application, zest, happiness, and one-pointedness.
  2. The second jhana path consciousness of stream-entry together with sustained application, zest, happiness and one-pointedness
  3. The third jhana path consciousness of stream-entry together with zest, happiness, and one-pointedness
  4. The fourth jhana path consciousness of stream-entry together with equanimity and one-pointedness
  5. The fifth jhana path consciousness of stream-entry together with equanimity and one-pointedness
    These are five types of path consciousness of stream entry.

32) Concluding Summary

Dividing each (supramundane) consciousness into five kinds according to different jhana factors, the supramundane consciousness, it is said, becomes forty. 

As the fine-material-sphere consciousness is treated by division into first jhana consciousness and so on, even so is the supramundane consciousness.  The immaterial-sphere consciousness is included in the fifth jhana.

Thus, the jhanas beginning from the first amount to eleven, they say.  The last jhana (the fifth) totals twenty-three.

Thirty-seven are wholesome, fifty-two are resultants; thus the wise say that there are one hundred and twenty-one types of consciousness.

Thus ends the first chapter in the Manual of Abhidhamma entitled compendium of consciousness.

     

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