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Abhidhammatha Sangaha
by Acariya Anuruddha
Bhikkhu Bodhi, General Editor

Chapter VII
Compendium of Categories

Compendium of Unwholesome States
(akusalasangaha)

  1. Taints (floods, bonds):
    Taints=Asava=means "flowing out" in the sense of pus oozing from sores and fermented intoxicants; also flowing in the sense that they flow up to the topmost plane of existence, and reincarnation (change-of-lineage?) Floods: because "they sweep away beings into the ocean of existence, and because they are hard to cross (266)."  Bonds (yoga = yoke [different from the sanskrit, yoga]):  "They yoke people to suffering  and do not allow them to escape. (ibid.)"
    1. The taint (flood, bond) of sensual desire
    2. The taint of attachment to existence
    3. The taint of wrong views
    4. The taint of ignorance
  2. Bodily Knots
    So called because they tie the mind to the body (kaya; mental and physical body), and the body to future existences.
    1. The Bodily knot of ...covetousness
    2. ...ill will
    3. ...adherence to rites and ceremonies
    4. ...dogmatic belief that "this alone is true"
  3. Clingings
    1. clinging to sense pleasure
    2. clinging to wrong view
    3. clinging to rites and ceremonies (the belief that rites and ceremonies or ascetic practices can lead to liberation)
    4. clinging to doctrine of self  (Belief in a substantial or existential self or soul that abides in the body or transmigrates after death.   Self-ness is an illusion in Buddhism.  The formula for the 20 'wrong personality views runs thus "One regards materiality as self, or self as possessing materiality or materiality as in self, or self as in materiality" and likewise for feeling, perception mental formations and consciousness: "...one regards consciousness as self, or self as possessing consciousness, etc.")
  4. Hindrances
    "So called beause the obstruct the way to a heavenly rebirth and to the attainment of Nibbana." The first five obstruct attainment of the jhanas (shamatha), the last the hinders the attaining of Vipassana, insight.
    1. Sensual Desire (notice a trend here?)
    2. ill will
    3. sloth and torpor (laziness, indolence)
    4. restlessness and worry (sometimes translated 'worry and flurry,' which is cuter)
    5. doubt
    6. ignorance
  5. Latent Dispositions
    "These defilements lie along with the mental process to which they belong, rising to the surface as obsessions whenever they meet suitable conditions (268)"  Sensual lust and Attachment to existence are modes of "greed." 
    1. sensual lust [emphasis on lust]
    2. attatchment to existence
    3. aversion
    4. conceit
    5. wrong views
    6. doubt
    7. ignorance
  6. Fetters:  Two Methods.
    1. Suttanta Method  (the form appearing in the Discourses of the Buddha)
      1. sensual lust
      2. attachment to fine-material existence (heavenly realms)
      3. attachment to immaterial existence ('godless' heavens)
      4. aversion
      5. conceit
      6. wrong views
      7. adherence to rites and ceremonies
      8. doubt
      9. restlessness
      10. ignorance
    2. Abhidhamma Method (Compiled posthumously from Buddha's teachings)
      1. sensual lust
      2. attachment to existence
      3. aversion
      4. conceit
      5. wrong views
      6. adherence to rites and ceremonies
      7. doubt
      8. envy
      9. avarice
      10. ignorance
  7. Defilements (kilesa)
    Perhaps the most important group of concepts to understand.  Kilesa are a perineal theme in Buddhism, ridding oneself (loosely speaking) of the Defilements is the 'Path of Purification.'  And ultimately, ridding oneself of the Defilments is the key to the 'Path to the Cessation of Suffering.'  "The defilements (kilesa) are so called because they afflict (kilissanti)' or torment the mind, or because they defile beings by dragging them down to a mentally soiled or depraved condition. (269)."
    1. Greed
    2. Hatred
    3. Delusion
    4. conceit
    5. wrong views
    6. doubt
    7. sloth
    8. restlessness
    9. shamelessness
    10. fearlessness of wrong views

    here ends the compendium of unwholesome states.  What follows are mixed states, and wholesome states...

 

 

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